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Learning Objectives Identify the general structure for an alcohol. Identify the structural feature that classifies alcohols as primary, secondary, or tertiary. Name alcohols with both common names & IUPAC names

An alcohol is an organic compound with a hydroxyl (OH) functional group on an aliphatic carbon atom. Because OH is the functional group of all alcohols, we often represent alcohols by the general formula ROH, where R is an alkyl group. Alcohols are common in nature. Most people are familiar with ethyl alcohol (ethanol), the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages, but this compound is only one of a family of organic compounds known as alcohols. The family also includes such familiar substances as cholesterol & the carbohydrates. Methanol (CH3OH) và ethanol (CH3CH2OH) are the first two members of the homologous series of alcohols.

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Nomenclature of Alcohols

Alcohols with one to four carbon atoms are frequently called by common names, in which the name of the alkyl group is followed by the word alcohol:

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According to lớn the International Union of Pure and Applied rongnhophuyen.comistry (IUPAC), alcohols are named by changing the ending of the parent alkane name khổng lồ -ol. Here are some basic IUPAC rules for naming alcohols:

The longest continuous chain (LCC) of carbon atoms containing the OH group is taken as the parent compound—an alkane with the same number of carbon atoms. The chain is numbered from the kết thúc nearest the OH group. The number that indicates the position of the OH group is prefixed khổng lồ the name of the parent hydrocarbon, và the -e ending of the parent alkane is replaced by the suffix -ol. (In cyclic alcohols, the carbon atom bearing the OH group is designated C1, but the 1 is not used in the name.) Substituents are named và numbered as in alkanes. If more than one OH group appears in the same molecule (polyhydroxy alcohols), suffixes such as -diol & -triol are used. In these cases, the -e ending of the parent alkane is retained.

Figure (PageIndex1) shows some examples of the application of these rules.


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Finally, we địa chỉ enough hydrogen atoms khổng lồ give each carbon atom four bonds.


Ex 2 Sol 1 b.jpgTop 20 30 Seconds Là Gì - Thirty Seconds Tiếng Việt Là Gì

A primary (1°) alcohol is one in which the carbon atom (in red) with the OH group is attached khổng lồ one other carbon atom (in blue). Its general formula is RCH2OH.