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Selective synthesis of Cu–Cu2O/C và CuO–Cu2O/C catalysts for Pd-free C–C, C–N coupling và oxidation reactions†
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* Corresponding authors
a Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of giải pháp công nghệ Ropar, Rupnagar, Punjab-140001, India E-mail: rajendra
In this study, the preparation of economical Cu-based catalysts for Pd-free coupling & oxidation reactions was demonstrated. For the preparation of the Cu-based catalyst, first, a Cu-BTC MOF was prepared under ambient conditions. The Cu-BTC MOF was then carbonized in N2 lớn obtain Cu–Cu2O-supported carbon materials. Moreover, the Cu–Cu2O-supported carbon material was subjected to lớn heating in O2 to lớn obtain the CuO–Cu2O-supported carbon material. Formation of Cu-BTC-MOF, Cu–Cu2O, and CuO–Cu2O was confirmed via powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) và X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The amount and types of carbon present in the catalyst were confirmed using thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The textural properties of the materials were determined using N2-sorption measurement. The morphology, porosity, và elemental composition were confirmed via the scanning và transmission electron microscopy images. The Cu–Cu2O-supported carbon material successfully catalyzed the Sonogashira cross-coupling (C–C cross-coupling reaction), Ullmann amination (C–N coupling reaction), và A3 coupling (decarboxylative C–C và C–N coupling) reactions; moreover, the CuO–Cu2O-supported carbon material successfully oxidized diphenylmethane in O2 at 1 atm. The catalysts were found to be stable & recyclable. Heterogeneity of the reaction was confirmed via the CS2 poisoning and hot-filtration tests. The presence of the optimum amount and the suitable oxidation state of Cu in the stable nanoporous carbon matrix having graphitic conducting nature were responsible for the excellent activity and recyclability. The results demonstrate that the applications of these Cu-based catalysts can be extended to several catalytic reactions that are known khổng lồ be catalyzed using Pd và other costly metals.